Heritage Valley Trivia Questions
Santa Paula: Citrus Capital of World
LA TIMES March 30, 1986| MICHELE GRIMM and TOM GRIMM
Santa Paula is the geographical center of Ventura County, situated in the rich agricultural Santa Clara River Valley. The City is surrounded by rolling hills and rugged mountain peaks in addition to orange, lemon and avocado groves. In fact, Santa Paula is referred to as the “Citrus Capital of the World”.
The Santa Paula Airport and Aviation Museum documents the long story of the local airport, which opened in 1930 Santa Paula has gained the nickname, “Antique Airplane Capital of the World” because of the unique collection of planes housed in the Aviation Museum.http://www.ci.santa-paula.ca.us/CityFACTS.htm
“Heritage Valley” (LA- Ventura county line to Ventura City limits) is PART of the Santa Clara River Valley and includes the communities of Santa Paula, Fillmore, and Piru. The designation, Heritage Valley, was chosen when representatives of tourism related organizations and businesses throughout that geographical area, about 20 years ago, joined together under Ventura County leadership to promote tourism under the name Heritage Valley Tourism Bureau. [[[her·it·age NOUN >valued objects and qualities such as cultural traditions, unspoiled countryside, and historic buildings that have been passed down from previous generations. “the richness of our diverse cultural heritage”]]]
The name Piru derives from the Shoshonean name pí idhu-ku. It was first named Piru City in 1888. The name Piru (originally pronounced “Pea-roo” by the Indians) comes from the Tataviam word for the Tule reeds growing along Piru Creek that were used in making baskets. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piru,_California
The area of what today is Santa Paula was originally inhabited by the Chumash, a Native American people. In 1769, the Spanish Portola expedition, first Europeans to see inland areas of California, came down the Santa Clara River Valley from the previous night’s encampment near Fillmore and camped in the vicinity of Santa Paula on August 12, near one of the creeks coming into the valley from the north (Santa Paula Creek). Fray Juan Crespi, a Franciscan missionary travelling with the expedition, had previously named the valley Cañada de Santa Clara. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Paula,_California
Primitive drip irrigation has been used since ancient times. In China during the first century BCE, describes the use of buried, unglazed clay pots filled with water as a means of irrigation. Modern drip irrigation began its development in Germany in 1860 when researchers began experimenting with subsurface irrigation using clay pipe to create combination irrigation and drainage systems. The usage of plastic to hold and distribute water in drip irrigation was later developed in Australia by Hannis Thill. Usage of a plastic emitter in drip irrigation was developed in Israel by Simcha Blass and his son Yeshayahu. Instead of releasing water through tiny holes easily blocked by tiny particles, water was released through larger and longer passageways by using velocity to slow water inside a plastic emitter. The first experimental system of this type was established in 1959 by Blass who partnered later (1964) with Kibbutz Hatzerim to create an irrigation company called Netafim. Together they developed and patented the first practical surface drip irrigation emitter.
Answer: An orchard is an area of land devoted to the cultivation of fruit or nut trees. “Orchard” is also defined as the trees cultivated in such an area. A grove is a small wood or stand of trees lacking dense undergrowth. “Grove” is also defined as a group of trees planted and cultivated for fruit or nut production. Reference: www.times-herald.com/closeup/20131220Consumer-Qs. A grove is a stand of fruit or nut trees without underbrush. An orchard is a planting of fruit or nut trees planted for harvesting. All orchards are deciduous** trees and all groves are evergreen trees. Orchards are also sometimes a feature of large gardens, where they serve an aesthetic as well as a productive purpose. **Deciduous means “falling off at maturity” or “tending to fall off”, and it is typically used in order to refer to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally (most commonly during autumn) and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe.
Principles of Frost Protection
University of California Atmospheric Science Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A.
Ground Cover and Mulches
When grass or weeds are present in an orchard or vineyard, sunlight is reflected from the surface and less energy is stored in the soil. Therefore, the crop is more prone to freeze damage. Vegetative mulches usually reduce the transfer of heat into the soil and hence make crops more freeze prone.
Wind machines provide protection by increasing the downward sensible heat flux density. The fans mix warm air aloft with colder air near the surface. The amount of protection afforded depends on the unprotected inversion strength.
Helicopters move warm air from aloft in an inversion to the surface. If there is little or no inversion, helicopters are ineffective. The area covered by a single helicopter depends on the helicopter size and weight and the weather conditions. Pilots often load helicopter spray tanks with water to increase the weight. Under severe freezes with a high inversion, one helicopter can fly above another to enhance the downward heat transfer.
When using sprinklers for freeze protection, the sprinklers should be started and stopped when the wet-bulb temperature is above the critical damage temperature. The air temperature to start the sprinklers is estimated by first measuring the dew point (Td) temperature (explained later).
Natural fog is known to provide protection against freezing, so artificial fogs have also been studied as possible methods against freeze damage. Fog lines that use high pressure lines and nozzles to make fog droplets have been reported to provide excellent protection under calm wind conditions. Similarly, natural fogs created by vaporizing water with jet engines has been observed to provide protection. The jet engine approach has the advantage that it can be moved to the upwind side of the crop to be protected.
Surface (flood and furrow) irrigation is commonly used for freeze protection inCalifornia. Protection is provided by the conversion of latent to sensible heat from thecooling water. Both convection of air warmed by the water and upward radiation are enhanced. In surface irrigation, freezing of the water is undesirable because the formation of ice above the liquid water prevents heat transfer from the warmer water under the ice crust.
Heaters provide freeze protection by direct radiation to the plants around them and by causing convective mixing of air within the inversion layer. When heaters are operated, the heated air rises. As the heated air rises, it cools until it reaches the height where the ambient air has the same temperature. Then the air spreads out and, eventually, the air descends again.
History of Fillmore Hatchery: Fillmore Hatchery is located in a former citrus grove bordering the Santa Clara River which provides water by wells. It was one of the first “warmwater” trout hatcheries constructed in California to produce catchable-sized fish. The water is about 60°F which supports fast growth for trout. Initial testing of the water supply began in 1941. In 1942, 30 ponds, 4 cottages, a feed room, and a garage building were constructed at a cost of approximately $74,000. Fillmore Fish Hatchery was dedicated as a state hatchery in 1942. Initially Fillmore was constructed with earthen ponds which were supplied by both spring and well water. 1968 and 1972 saw renovations with construction of a total 40 concrete ponds and two additional wells. Fillmore currently utilizes 1 large well along with one recirculation pump to conserve water. Water temps average at 60 degrees. Fillmore Hatchery is a production trout hatchery which receives fertile trout eggs from a CDFW egg production hatchery. Once hatched, fish are raised for one year before release for recreational angling. On average 700,000 trout are released yearly into local lakes and streams primarily in Southern California. Due to unprecedented drought, in 2014 an upgrade was the installation of Endangered Species Fish Rescue Tanks. The system is capable of maintaining a controlled living environment separate from the main hatchery and rearing ponds. It provides controlled water temperatures and oxygenation, recirculation and disease control.https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Fishing/Hatcheries/Fillmore/History
LA TIMES: In Hollywood, all trains lead to Fillmore JULY 20, 2010 | 1:38 PM
The company, which owns 50 freight, passenger and commuter cars and 10 locomotives dating back to the 1880s, calls itself Home of the Movie Trains — with some justification, if not a little Hollywood hype. Fillmore & Western’s trains, along with its bridges, trestles and stations, have been featured in more than 300 films and TV and commercial productions over the last two decades, making it the largest so-called short-run railway of its kind in Southern California, if not the country. Fillmore & Western Railway. The Fillmore & Western Railway is the Home of Hollywood’s movie trains, and who better to help run it than a former movie projectionist? April 1, 2006 by Meghan Saar
The Sespe Condor Sanctuary north of Fillmore, CA, was established in 1947 and expanded in 1951 to its current size of 53,000 acres. The Sanctuary lies within the boundary of the Sespe Wilderness and is where the Forest Service provides critical habitat, wildlife refuge, and land management for the protection of the California condor. The Los Padres Condor Range and River Protection Act of 1992 established the Sespe Wilderness, which is also regarded as the “Home of the California Condor.”
- Largest flying land bird in North America, with a wingspan of up to 9½ feet.
- Weighs up to 26 pounds.
- Soar and glide at speeds up to 50 MPH.
- Can travel up to 100 miles in a day.
- Opportunistic scavengers that feed on large, dead mammals.
- Live up to 60 years old in the wild.
- Sexually mature at 5-7 years old and mate for life.
- Produce one egg every other year.
- Parents share incubation and feeding responsibilities.
The Santa Clara School was founded in 1879. The current School Building “The Little Red School House” is not the original building or even on the original site. This schoolhouse was built in 1896 and is located on California SR 126 approximately half-way between the cities of Santa Paula and Fillmore. The school has been in continuous operation since 1879 and today serves K-6 students who work together in one of the three school rooms. Much of the original character of the school and its facilities remains, although today modern equipment e.g. television, document cameras and computers are extensively used, the school retains its historic tradition of academic excellence. http://www.scesd.k12.ca.us/Home.aspx
Fillmore sits at the foot of Topatopa Mountains and several other mountains in the Santa Clara River Valley. Fillmore is a small town in the Santa Clara River Valley below San Cayetano Mountain, a peak of the Topatopa Mountains in the Los Padres National Forest. The South Mountain Oil Field is a large and productive oil field in Ventura County, California, in the United States, in and adjacent to the city of Santa Paula. Near Piru The Santa Ynez Mountains are a portion of the Transverse Ranges, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges of the west coast of North America. It is the westernmost range in the Transverse Ranges. The range is somewhat contiguous with the Topatopa Mountains beyond to the east, which terminates abruptly at Sespe Creek. Piru Creek originates as several small springs on the north side of Pine Mountain Ridge in the Santa Ynez Mountains the Smith Fork of Piru Creek, with headwaters in the San Emigdio Mountains.
Known regionally as Trout in the Classroom, Salmonids in the Classroom, Steelhead in the Classroom, or Salmon and Trout Education Program.
Through a classroom experience of hatching fish eggs and coordinated activities, students experience first-hand the value of aquatic environments, the balance that must be met to maintain and preserve California’s fisheries and aquatic habitats, and how their personal actions affect these valuable resources.
Instructors and their students set up an aquarium in the classroom, receive fish eggs under a special CDFW permit, and observe the fish as they hatch and develop. The experience may culminate in a field trip to a local stream or river where the fish are released. This is a hands-on, interdisciplinary project for grades K-12.
The Classroom Aquarium Education Project is offered statewide in partnership with regionally-based community organizations. While the program has several names around the state, the essential learning elements and student experiences are similar. The prerequisite training workshops are held at locations throughout the state. Completion of a training workshop is required to receive eggs. Teacher training workshops are offered at least once a year in each region.
In simple terms, a triploid fish is merely a fish that is sterile. Triploid fish have three sets of chromosomes, unlike a fertile fish that have two sets of chromosomes (a diploid fish). Triploids are common in many industries; Seedless watermelons are triploids, as are bananas. Triploids are also naturally occurring.
A triploid fish is not a genetically modified organism. The genes of the fish have not been manipulated or changed in any way and do not result in the expression of any foreign or novel proteins or tissues. Triploid fish simply have 3 sets of chromosomes instead of 2 and for this reason are not able to reproduce but are otherwise normal fish.
Recent legislation codified in the Fish and Game Code describes the rational to use sterile fish for recreational purposes. These include the conservation of native fish genotypes (genetics) and the protection of endangered or threatened species. For these and other reasons the California Department of Fish and Wildlife is producing triploid trout eggs that hatch into fish, are raised, and ultimately result in sterilized trout released for recreational purposes.
Triploid trout are created by forcing the egg to retain a chromosome that is normally ejected during egg development. There are many ways to do this; the California Department of Fish and Wildlife uses the pressure shock treatment method.
In fertilized trout eggs, normally a chromosome (N) is kicked out of the egg as a polar body at some stage of development. Using pressure treatment at a specific time in the egg development, the polar body and chromosome is retained. With 3 chromosomes the fish is sterile and cannot reproduce.
How we do it: Eggs and Milt are collected separately from the respective sexes. The gametes are taken from the spawning building to the fertilization station in groups of approximately 60 ounces of eggs and 10ml of milt. At timed intervals, each group of eggs is fertilized, rinsed, poured into a metal cylinder, and placed into a holding tank. These eggs will sit in the holding tank for a period that is based on water temperature, called a TTU (Time Temperature Unit). This allows the egg sufficient time of development to generate the polar body, but not yet expel it. After this time, the cylinder is placed into a pressure vessel. Once the eggs are in and the vessel lid is on, the pressure inside the vessel is increased to 10,000 psi. Eggs remain in the pressure vessel for 5 minutes. During this time, the polar body cannot be ejected due to pressure. After pressurization eggs are put into vertical flow incubator stacks for hatching. After the eggs hatch, they are raised like any other trout. Studies have shown that after 3 years of age, triploid trout tend to grow larger than a non-sterile trout due to less energy being expended for mating purposes.